Hope Chemical Works of Carless, Capel and Leonard. In the 1980s all that survived of this extremely important site is the boundary wall of 1891. This was the Carless, Capel & Leonard works, established in 1859, rebuilt after a fire in 1890. The firm was the first to use term ‘petrol’. Eugene Carless established a mineral oil distillation and refining business here in 1859. Initially, oil supplies came from Scottish bituminous shales. A later by-product was benzine used in flare lamps and in the dry-cleaning industry. The first U.S oil supplies came in 1869 - in wooden barrels and Carless’s became the leading distillers of U.S Crude Oils in the UK. In 1870 George Capel joined the firm and John Leonard in 1872, Leonard soon became the sole proprietor. In 1893, Frederick Simms, of the Daimler Motor Syndicate Ltd and ordered “Launch Spirit”, also called “De-odourised Petroleum Spirit for his boat business and the name was changed to “Petrol” at his suggestion. The firm supplied their new fuel for the Emancipation Run to Brighton in 1896 and became founder members if the Automobile club. In early advertisements they referred to “autocarists”. By 1899 theywere still virtually the only British source of refined motor spirit, and had 1,500 agents throughout the country. In 1894 they also took over the Pharos Oil works, and in 1907, the Lea Chemical works. They relocated to Harwich in 1968. In the 1920s coalite was supplied as a fuel to the RAF and in the Second World War they made TNT. The Company opened a refinery at Harwich in 1964 dealing with condensate from North Sea Oil. Production ended at Hackney Wick in the early 1970s and the administration moved from the Hope Works to Petrol House but the firm soon left Hackney Wick completely.